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Laboratory of Radio Sounding of the Ionosphere

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Basic research activities

  • Conducting of radio tomography observations with the array of receiving stations along the magnetic meridian Spitsbergen archipelago – Moscow – Sochi
  • Study of the
    • structure of the ionosphere
    • relation of anisotropy parameters of small-scale ionospheric irregularities with the plasma convection in the polar cap ionosphere with the use of radio tomography data
  • Experimental works on the detection of stimulated HF-emission produced in modifying the high-latitude ionosphere by powerful HF radiation.
  • Study of the structure and dynamics of ionospheric perturbations produced by heating facilities, based on the generation of ELF-SLF-VLF and HF radio waves.
  • Experimental works on the remote sounding of the crust by means of stationary sources of ELF electromagnetic field.
  • Study of the influence of the ionosphere on the excitation of electromagnetic waves in the ELF range.


Major scientific problems

Development of the techniques, methods, and algorithms of radiotomographic observations of the ionosphere with the use of satellite navigation systems. Application to diagnostics of the effects of various ionospheric modifications. Development of the methods for diagnostics and estimating the structure and dynamics of ionospheric artificial irregularities with the use of radio physical equipment. Estimation of the initial parameters of ionospheric irregularities, which can be used in the development of their evolution models, and characteristics of the equipment enabling to detect the irregularities in the far-field region. Increase of effectiveness of mineral exploration, geological exploration of fractures and other intratelluric structures by application of the stationary sources of the ELF electromagnetic field.

Scientific relations

The lab of radio sounding of the ionosphere has scientific relations with the Institute of applied geophysics named after academician E. K. Fedorov (Moscow), and the Research Institute of radio physics (RIRP, Nizhni Novgorod) within the Federal principal program “Creation and development of the geophysical system for monitoring of geophysical conditions over the territory of RF for 2008-2015”. The lab keeps up and expands scientific cooperation with RIRP (Nizhni Novgorod), Russian Institute for Powerful Radiobuilding (RIPR, St.-Petersburg), University of Tromso, (Norway), and international scientific organization EISCAT in the study of the effects of ionosphere modification by powerful HF radiation. The lab closely cooperates with the chair of atmospheric physics of the physical department of the Moscow State University named after Lomonosov (Moscow) in conducting joint experiments, data exchange, data processing, and interpretation of the results. Studies of the ionosphere modified by HF radiation have been performed together with scientific researchers from the Physical Institute named after P. N. Lebedev (RAS, FIAN, Moscow). The lab keeps up scientific collaboration with the Murmansk State Technical University (MSTU, Murmansk) in the interpretation of the results and analysis of dynamics of ionospheric structures by comparison of tomographic reconstruction pictures of ionospheric electron density spatial distributions with the results of numerical simulations. In the years 1997-2002, 2003-2006, 2007-2012 the lab was a partner of the Norwegian-Russian program of the study of the upper atmosphere within the agreement on scientific-technological cooperation in Arctic and exploration of the North between the Federal Agency on science and innovations of RF and Research Council of Norway. Within this program, the cooperation with the University of Tromso, Auroral observatory of Tromso, and University center on Svalbard (UNIS) has been keeping up. The scientific researchers of the lab have common publications with the colleagues from the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan, Canada), and University of Leicester (Leicester, England).

Plans for the nearest future

Conducting of research works on SLF-ELF sounding with the use of depth-sensors. Usage in the ionospheric studies of optical and radiotomographic data combined with the data on the electron content obtained with GPS signals.


Patent on the invention №23613664 “Two-way link with a submarine object”, registered in the RF State invention register, on 10 July 2009.

Principal publications

Kunitsyn V.E., Tereshchenko E.D. Ionospheric tomography (with 88 figures, including 16 color plates). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2003. –260p. Tereshchenko E.D., Romanova N.Yu. and Koustov A.V. Orientation of the cross-field anisotropy of small-scale ionospheric irregularities and direction of plasma convection Ann. Geophys. -2005. -V.23. -P.1227–1237. E.D. Tereshchenko, A.E. Sidorenko, V.F. Grigor’ev, A.N. Vasil’ev, L.A. Sobchakov and A.V. Vasil’ev. Specific features of the frequency dependence of the horizontal magnetic field components in the ultralow and extremely low frequency range. Journal Technical Physics Letters, Volume 31, Number 7 / July, 2005, P.595-596. Tereshchenko E.D., B.Z. Khudukon, M.T. Rietveld, B. Isham, T. Hagfors, A. Brekke. The relationship between small-scale and large-scale ionospheric electron density irregularities generated by powerful HF electromagnetic waves at high latitudes. Ann. Geophys. -2006. –V.24. –P.2901-2909. Tereshchenko E.D., Yurik R.Yu., Khudukon B.Z., Rietveld M.T., Isham B., Belyey V., Brekke A., Hagfors T., M. Grill. Directional features of the downshifted peak observed in HF-induced stimulated electromagnetic emission spectra obtained using an interferometer. Ann. Geophys. -2006. -V.24. –P.1819-1827. E.D. Tereshchenko, V.F. Grigor’ev, A.E. Sidorenko, A.N. Milichenko, A.V. Mol’kov, L.A. Sobchakov and A.V. Vasil’ev. On the possibility of quasi-vertical radio sounding of the ionosphere in the extremely low frequency band. JETP Letters, Volume 85, Number 8 / June 2007, P. 386-388. E.D. Tereshchenko, V.F. Grigor’ev, A.E. Sidorenko, A.N. Milichenko, L.A. Sobchakov and A.V. Vasil’ev. Effect of the ionosphere on electromagnetic waves from ground-based emitter in the frequency band 1–10 Hz. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Volume 47, Number 6 / December, 2007, P.810-811. Frolov V L, Bakhmet’eva N V, Belikovich V V, Vertogradov G G, Vertogradov V G, Komrakov G P, Kotik D S, Mityakov N A, Polyakov S V, Rapoport V O, Sergeev E N, Tereshchenko E D, Tolmacheva A V, Uryadov V P, Khudukon B Z. Modification of the earth’s ionosphere by high-power high-frequency radio waves. Physics-Uspekhi. –2007. –V.50, № 3. –P.315-324. Tereshchenko E.D., N.Yu. Romanova, and A.V. Koustov. VHF scintillations, orientation of the anisotropy of F-region irregularities and direction of plasma convection in the polar cap. Ann. Geophys. –2008. –V.26. –P.1725-1730. E.D. Tereshchenko, A.N. Milichenko, V.L. Frolov and R.Yu. Yurik. Observations of the magnetic-zenith effect using GPS/GLONASS satellite signals. Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Volume 51, Number 11 / November, 2008, P. 842-846. E.D. Tereshchenko, R.Yu. Yurik, T.K. Yeoman and T.R. Robinson. First observations of stimulated electromagnetic emission in the ionosphere modified by the SPEAR heating facility on Spitsbergen. Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Volume 51, Number 11 / November, 2008, P. 858-861. I.V. Korableva, A.A. Namgaladze and A.N. Namgaladze. High-latitude ionosphere during magnetic storms of October 26, 2003–November 1, 2003: Tomographic reconstructions and numerical modeling. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Volume 48, Number 5 / October, 2008, P. 642-651. E.P. Velikhov, E.D. Tereshchenko, M.S. Zhdanov, Yu.G. Schors, T.A. Bagirov, V.F. Grigoriev, A.E. Sidorenko, A.N. Milichenko. On using the powerful extremely low frequency sources of electromagnetic field to earth’s crust remote sounding. Innovation electromagnetic methods in geophysics. Collected articles. Edited by academician E.P. Velikhov. M.: Scientific world, 2009. -334p., 28 col.ill. -P.171-185. E.D. Tereshchenko, V.F. Grigoriev, A.E. Sidorenko, A.N. Milichenko, L.A. Sobchakov. About the ionospheric effect on ELF waves excitation in the transition zone. Innovation electromagnetic methods in geophysics. Collected articles. Edited by academician E.P. Velikhov. M.: Scientific world, 2009. -334 p., 28 col.ill.–P.329-332. A.A. Zhamaletdinov, A.N. Shevtsov, T.G. Korotkova, Yu.A. Kopytenko, V.S. Ismagilov, B.V. Efimov, M.B. Barannik, V.V. Kolobov, P.I. Prokopchuk, M.Yu. Smirnov, S.A. Vagin, M.I. Pertel, E.D. Tereshchenko, A.N. Vasil’ev, M.B. Gokhberg and T. Korja. International FENICS experiment on the tensor frequency electromagnetic sounding of the lithosphere in the Eastern Baltic (Fennoscandian) Shield. Doklady Earth Sciences, Volume 427, Number 2 / August, 2009, P. 979-984. E.D. Tereshchenko, V.F. Grigoryev, M.B. Barannik, A.N. Danilin, B.V. Efimov, V.V. Kolobov, P.I. Prokopchuk, V.N. Selivanov, Yu.A. Kopytenko and A.A. Zhamaletdinov. A set-up converter and energy transfer system of an “Energy-2” generator for electromagnetic sounding and monitoring of zones of earthquake sources. Seismic Instruments, Volume 45, Number 1 / June, 2009, P.119-133.